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In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill. However, Shah Jahan first married Princess Kandahari Begum, the daughter of a great-grandson of Shah Ismail I of Persia, with whom he had a daughter, his first child. Jahanara Begum Sahib, Mumtaz Mahal's first daughter, voluntarily shared his 8-year confinement and nursed him in his dotage. The family's patriarch was Mirza Ghiyas Beg, who was also known by his title I'timād-ud-Daulah or "Pillar of the State". After the death of her father, she returned back to her own palace. However, several emperors after Akbar did add onto the fort, including Emperor Shah Jahan. Later he took refuge in Udaipur Mewar with Maharaja Karan Singh II . He was an able ruler and a competent administrator who aimed at expanding the Mughal Empire. Due to the long period of tensions between his father and step-brother, Khurram began to drift closer to his father, and over time, started to be considered the de facto heir-apparent by court chroniclers. Prince Khurram resented the influence Nur Jahan held over his father and was angered at having to play second fiddle to her favourite Shahryar, his half-brother and her son-in-law. Kandahari Mahal (1594 - ?, wedding in 1609), Mumtaz Mahal (1593 - 1631, wedding in 1612). He was killed in 1661 as per Aurangzeb's orders. Jahanara became the First Lady (. Evidence from the reign of Shah Jahan states that in 1648 the army consisted of 911,400 infantry, musketeers, and artillery men, and 185,000 Sowars commanded by princes and nobles. Shah Jahan died on 22 January 1666. Readers may recall mention of the ‘Shah Jahan’ Diamond during our interview with Anthony Spink in issue 34 of the Insider last year. [40], A famine broke out in 1630–32 in Deccan, Gujarat and Khandesh as a result of three main crop failures. [24] Nur Jahan was an intelligent and beautiful lady with an excellent educational background. His pre-accession coins bear the name Khurram. Aurangzeb refused to accommodate such ostentation. His body was interred at Taj Mahal, next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal Aurangzeb, the third son, gathered a well-trained army and became its chief commander. Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra. Although the prince was forgiven for his errors in 1626, tensions between Nur Jahan and her stepson continued to grow beneath the surface. He was accompanied by Shaykh Ibrahim, father of future Shaykh Junayd. Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra Fort. She bore him fourteen children, out of whom seven survived into adulthood. "Khurram" was chosen by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, whom Jahan shared a close relationship with. Court intrigues, however, including Nur Jahan's decision to have her daughter from her first marriage wed Prince Khurram's youngest brother Shahzada Shahryar and her support for his claim to the throne led to much internal division. About Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan, with the help of Jahanara, raped Mumtaz’s brother Shaista Khan’s wife several times. The building took twenty years to complete and was constructed from white marble underlaid with brick. Towards the end of his reign he had to fight more internal enemies like the Islamic rebellion of Ahmednagar, or pushing the Portuguese back to Bengal, recovering the Rajput kingdoms of Baglana and Bundelkhand to the west and north-west beyond Khyber. He was born as Prince Khurram on 5th January 1592, to Emperor Jahangir and his second wife, Jagat Gosini (a Rajput Princess). Campaigns against Georgia. [49] His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, which he built out of love for his wife, the empress Mumtaz Mahal. Asaf Khan’s sister and Shah Jahan’s old enemy Nur Jahan, survived until December 1645, but lived in retirement and never caused him trouble again. It is believed that the mosaic work of Jagmandir inspired him to use mosaic work in the Taj Mahal of Agra. Her near and dear relatives acquired important positions in the Mughal court, termed as the Nur Jahan junta by historians. Shah Jahan was born in 1592 as Prince Khurram. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3] (Persian: شهاب‌الدین محمد خرم‎; 5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666),[7] better known by his regnal name, Shah Jahan (Persian: شاه جهان‎, lit. In 1611, his father married Nur Jehan, the widowed daughter of a Persian immigrant and the aunt of Arjumand Banu Begum. Her aunt was the Empress Nur Jahan, and is thought to have played matchmaker in arranging the marriage. Prince Khurram exchanged his turban with maharana and that turban is still preserved in Pratap Museum, Udaipur. GPS : 27° 10'30.05" North / 78° 2'31.76" West. During his reign as Emperor, he contributed immensely to architecture in India. Shah Jahan appointed Aurangzeb as Viceroy of the Deccan, consisting of Khandesh, Berar, Telangana, and Daulatabad. Shah Jahan was the fifth Mughal Emperor of India. He is known as Shah Jahân, sometimes spelled Shah Jehan, but his official name is Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan was a Muslim, as we can see from his constructions, especially the Taj Mahal. Inheritance of power and wealth in the Mughal empire was not determined through primogeniture, but by princely sons competing to achieve military successes and consolidating their power at court. After reciting the Kal'ma (Laa ilaaha ill allah) and verses from the Quran, Shah Jahan died, aged 74. He was also Khalifat Panahi ("Refuge of the Caliphate"), but Zill-i Allahi, or the "Shadow of God on Earth". It had the characteristic of being that of the maximum extension of the Empire thanks to the levies of soldiers and the multiplication of the external conflicts. Her death had a profound impact on Shah Jahan's personality and inspired the construction of the Taj Mahal, where she was later reburied. In 1440, King Alexander I of Georgia refused to pay tribute to Jahan Shah. Those put to death included his own brother Shahryar; his nephews Dawar and Garshasp, sons of Shah Jahan's previously executed brother Prince Khusrau; and his cousins Tahmuras and Hoshang, sons of the late Prince Daniyal Mirza. [34], His regnal name is divided into various parts. India at the time was a rich centre of the arts, crafts and architecture, and some of the best of the architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters and writers of the world resided in Shah Jahan's empire. (Public domain) World of the Harem: Prisoners within Gilded Cages At his death Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal to serve as a tomb. As a result of Prince Khurram's refusal to obey Nur Jahan's orders, Kandahar was lost to the Persians after a forty-five-day siege. [42], In 1632, Shah Jahan captured the fortress at Daulatabad, Maharashtra and imprisoned Husain Shah of the Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar. He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir. 'King of the World'),[8] was the fifth Mughal emperor, and reigned from 1628 to 1658. When he died in 1666, his son Aurangazeb had already taken power for 8 years. After Akbar's death in 1605, the young prince was allowed to return to his father's household, and thus, be closer to his biological mother. Shahanshah Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Malik-ul-Sultanat, Ala Hazrat Abu'l-Muzaffar Shahab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I, Sahib-i-Qiran-i-Sani, Padshah Ghazi Zillu'llah, Firdaus-Ashiyani, Shahanshah—E—Sultanant Ul Hindiya Wal Mughaliya, Jahangir, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri; The Emperor's memoirs, Sufism and Society: Arrangements of the Mystical in the Muslim World, 1200–1800 edited by John Curry, Erik Ohlander, Page 141, Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun, Mughal Emperor, Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, Mughal Emperor, Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir, Mughal Emperor, "The World Economy (GDP) : Historical Statistics by Professor Angus Maddison", Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Monument of Love or Symbol of Maternal Death: The Story Behind the Taj Mahal", "The 5 most dominant economic empires of all time", "A Qutub Minar that not many knew even existed", "The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions)", Shah Jahan's 353rd death anniversary observed at Taj Mahal at TwoCircles.net, History of Islam in India at IndiaNest.com, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shah_Jahan&oldid=996426721, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with incomplete citations from March 2015, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [27] Later on, as empress, Mumtaz Mahal wielded immense power, such as being consulted by her husband in state matters and being responsible for the imperial seal, which allowed her to review official documents in their final draft. [16] So, when Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care, so that Akbar could fulfil his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor. Subsequently he increased his aura by winning different victories, still widening a little more the historical territory of the Mughals, but without ever reaching, however, to extend towards the West. Domestic concerns included putting down numerous rebellions, and the devastating famine from 1630-32. ShahJahan was given the name of Mumtaz Mahal (Ornament of the Palace) when Prince Khurram acceded the throne and became … The Mughal Emperor Humayun. He faced Dara's army near Agra and defeated him during the Battle of Samugarh. When Shah Jahan became ill in 1658, Dara Shikoh (Mumtaz Mahal's eldest son) assumed the role of regent in his father's stead, which swiftly incurred the animosity of his brothers. Given the politically uncertain times immediately preceding Akbar's death, Khurram was in a fair amount of physical danger from political opponents of his father,[20] His conduct at this time can be understood as a precursor to the bravery that he was later be known for. Als Shah Jahan wegen eines Harnröhrenleidens im September 1657 in ernster Lebensgefahr schwebte, befürchteten seine jüngeren Söhne bereits Dara Shikohs Thronbesteigung in Delhi.Shah Jahan wurde zwar wieder halbwegs gesund, der Bruderkrieg war aber nicht mehr aufzuhalten; die Prinzen waren entschlossen, die Angelegenheit militärisch auszufechten. Historiography and the arts were instruments of propaganda, allowing the emergence of fine works of art or poetry that magnified the specific public ideology of the Mughals. Like his Father, Humayun was a frequent user of Opium. Upon his death, his son Aurangzeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. When Shah Jahan became ill in 1658, Dara Shikoh (Mumtaz Mahal's eldest son) assumed the role of regent in his father's stead, which swiftly incurred the animosity of his brothers. Shah Jahan's private life was conjugal and prolific. There were also other buildings, initiated by this creative emperor: the Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas, in the Red Fort of Delhi, for example. Shah Jahan's chaplain Sayyid Muhammad Qanauji and Kazi Qurban of Agra came to the fort, moved his body to a nearby hall, washed it, enshrouded it and put it in a coffin of sandalwood. He was fascinated by painting and jewelry,as his father Jahangir had been, and the fine arts flourished under Shah Jahan as they had in no previous reign. [27], Princess Jahanara had planned a state funeral which was to include a procession with Shah Jahan's body carried by eminent nobles followed by the notable citizens of Agra and officials scattering coins for the poor and needy. pictures are free of rights. His father rewarded him with the title of "Bahadur Shah Jahan", which indicated to all that he was the favorite to succeed to the throne. He was one of the greatest patrons of Mughal architecture. He was proclaimed emperor at Agra on Feb. 4, 1628. He put Nur Jahan in close confinement. Uh ... More seriously, his reign is considered that of the climax of the Mughals. The name of Shah Jahan comes from Persian which means "King of the World". Born January 5, 1592 in Lahore, he died on January 22, 1666 in Agra at the age of 74 years. The Mughal Empire continued to expand moderately during his reign as his sons commanded large armies on different fronts. During Jahangir's closing years, Shah Jahan came into open conflict with Empress Nur Jahan, but his rebellion against his father, in 1622, was unsuccessful. The child who would become Shah Jahan was born on March 4, 1592, in Lahore, now in Pakistan. He succeeded his father Emperor Jahangir and reigned from 1628 to 1658. She ordered Prince Khurram to march for Kandahar, but he refused. Shah Jahan himself nursed his beloved daughter back to health that took many weeks. [26], Though there was genuine love between the two, Arjumand Banu Begum was a politically astute woman and served as a crucial advisor and confidante to her husband. Among those who survived are Jahanara Begum, Dara Shukoh, Shah Shuja, Roshanara Begum, Aurangzeb, Murad Baksh, Gauhara Begum. His reign ushered in the golden age of Mughal architecture. 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