great mosque of kairouan history

However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} [89], In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. Great mosque of kairouan 1. "Soha Gaafar et Marwa Mourad, « La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, un maillon clé dans l'histoire de l'architecture Â», Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides Â», pp. It can also be referred to as Mosque of Uqba Ibn Nafi, in honor of its original founder. It is longer (127.60 metres) on the east side than the west (125.20 metres), and shorter on the north side (72.70 metres) than the south (78 metres). As you wander the grounds of the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia you are treading across over a millennia of history. Most of the works on which rests the reputation of the mosque are still conserved in situ while a certain number of them have joined the collections of the Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art; Raqqada is located about ten kilometres southwest of Kairouan. Its minaret is three stories tall and is located slightly off center on the northern side. The stories concern mainly the different phases of construction and expansion of the sanctuary, and the successive contributions of many princes to the interior decoration (mihrab, minbar, ceilings, etc.). 1–38, History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, Great Mosque of Kairouan (discoverislamicart.org), Great Mosque of Kairouan – Kairouan, Tunisia, Kairouan – UNESCO World Heritage Centre, The Great Mosque (kairouan-cci2009.nat.tn). Kairouan Great Mosque. [14] Access to the courtyard by six side entrances dating from the ninth and thirteenth centuries. It is surrounded at its upper part by 139 lusterware tiles (with a metallic sheen), each one is 21.1 centimetres square and they are arranged on the diagonal in a chessboard pattern. As the city expanded during the following three hundred years, the original mosque was torn down and rebuilt in 703, again in 774, and then significantly enlarged by … [12], During the thirteenth century, new gates were opened, the most remarkable, Bab Lalla Rihana dated from 1293, is located on the eastern wall of the enclosure. In Kairouan the Great Mosque was built in stages between 836 and 866. The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 metres long and 72 metres in width. [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. The university, consisting of scholars who taught in the mosque, was a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is recognized as one of the most significant religious places in Islam. [78], The mosque's mihrab, whose decor is a remarkable witness of Muslim art in the early centuries of Islam, is distinguished by its harmonious composition and the quality of its ornaments. Dating back to 670 CE, The Great Mosque of Kairouan represents one of the oldest and most influential places of worship in the Muslim world. This is the least expensive place to buy … [12][37] However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakri reported the existence, around the tenth and eleventh centuries, of about ten gates named differently from today. »[22]. Influencing later mosques in the region, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the oldest mosque in the first town of Islam in the West. [60] Although the shafts are of varying heights, the columns are ingeniously arranged to support fallen arches harmoniously. Structurally given the soft grounds subject to compaction, the buttressed towers added stability to the entire mosque. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. [46] Freed from its impurities, the water flows into an underground cistern supported by seven-metre-high pillars. One of the most important mon­uments in Kairouan is the Great Mosque of Uqba, which dates to the seventh century. The height difference is compensated by the development of variable bases, capitals and crossbeams; a number of these crossbeams are in cedar wood. A legend says they could not count them without going blind. The sanctuary is 137 by 37 meters and there are 17 naves and 8 bays. The minaret served as a watchtower, as well as to call the faithful to prayer. As such, it assumed the important function of representing a cosmopolitan and urbane Kairouan, one of the first cities organized under Muslim rule in North Africa. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal [84] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab. Soon after this mosque, Charlemagne built his palace at Aachen. The mosque has great importance historically because it is the first mosque in the first Muslim town in the West. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Extensive works under the Aghlabids two centuries later (9th Cent.AD/CE) gave the mosque its present aspect. This valuable collection, observed from the late nineteenth century by the French orientalists Octave Houdas and René Basset who mention in their report on their scientific mission in Tunisia published in the Journal of African correspondence in 1882, comprises according to the inventory established at the time of the Hafsids (circa 1293–1294) several Qur'ans and books of fiqh that concern mainly the Maliki fiqh and its sources. Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. Although it has existed for more than eleven centuries, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag. [12] The front façade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement). Up Next. [85], The library is near located, accessible by a door which the jambs and the lintel are carved in marble, adorned with a frieze of floral decoration. This collection is a unique source for studying the history and evolution of calligraphy of medieval manuscripts in the Maghreb, covering the period from the ninth to the eleventh century. It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. The oldest boards date back to the Aghlabid period (ninth century) and are decorated with scrolls and rosettes on a red background consists of squares with concave sides in which are inscribed four-petaled flowers in green and blue, and those performed by the Zirid dynasty (eleventh century) are characterised by inscriptions in black kufic writing with gold rim and the uprights of the letters end with lobed florets, all on a brown background adorned with simple floral patterns. However, it has a scattered building history. The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[86]. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Dated from the ninth century (about 862) and erected under the reign of the sixth Aghlabid ruler Abul Ibrahim (856–863), it is made in teak wood imported from India. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. [88], At the time of its greatest splendor, between the ninth and eleventh centuries AD, Kairouan was one of the greatest centres of Islamic civilisation and its reputation as a hotbed of scholarship covered the entire Maghreb. [25] In 875 Emir Ibrahim II built another three bays, thereby reducing the size of the courtyard which was further limited on the three other sides by the addition of double galleries. »[32], At the same time, the doctor and Anglican priest Thomas Shaw (1692–1751),[33] touring the Tunis Regency and passes through Kairouan in 1727, described the mosque as that: "which is considered the most beautiful and the most sacred of Berberian territories", evoking for example: "an almost unbelievable number of granite columns".[34]. [85] Its main adornment is a frieze that crowns calligraphy, the latter surmounted by a line of pointed openwork merlons, features an inscription in flowery kufic character carved on the background of interlacing plants. Create an account to start this course today. He then made the mihrab. Learn about its unique plan and influential design that was the model for later mosques in the region. Kairouan’s rampart-enclosed medina (75 acres [30 hectares]) contains the Great Mosque, with a 115-foot- (35-metre-) high minaret. All rights reserved. The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. The painted ceilings are a unique ensemble of planks, beams and brackets, illustrating almost thousand years of the history of painting on wood in Tunisia. It is formed by an oven-shaped niche framed by two marble columns and topped by a painted wooden half-cupola. How to Be Successful in College: Avoid Debt & Remedial Courses, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. Many of Tunisia's other major mosques, including the Great Mosque of Sousse, took their inspiration from Kairouan's Great Mosque … Their use probably dates to the work done under the Umayyad governor Bishr ibn Safwan in about 725 AD, and they have been reused at the base of the tower. By the founder of Kairouan it was built, he was the Sidi Oqba, for that as the Sidi Oqba Mosque is also known the mosque. [13][14], At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi (himself the founder of the city) chose the site of his mosque in the center of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. In the courtyard there are also several water wells some of which are placed side by side. The intermediary area, the dodecagonal drum of the dome, is pierced by sixteen small rectangular windows set into rounded niches. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Where Can You Meet Other Homeschool Parents? Medieval period. If you are travelling to Tunisia for religion and culture, don’t miss the Kairouan great Mosque, which is the oldest Mosque in North Africa. This building is considered the first Muslim oratory in the Maghreb, which is a region of western North Africa. It is the oldest minaret in the Muslim world,[53][54] and it is also the world's oldest minaret still standing. The mihrab is set in a niche covered by a semi-dome that is painted with foliage. There are large rents for the maintenance of teachers. This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. It is a hypostyle hall with a flat roof; however there are domes above the mihrab and entry. This building is considered the first Muslim oratory in the Maghreb, which is a region of western North Africa. Study.com has thousands of articles about every éditions Maison Tiers-Monde, Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. The Great Mosque of Cordoba. Founder:- Kairouan … Divided into two groups, they are dated from the beginning of the second half of the ninth century but it is not determined with certainty whether they were made in Baghdad or in Kairouan by a Baghdadi artisan, the controversy over the origin of this precious collection agitates the specialists. V, 1969, pp. The history of the Great Mosque of Kairouan: In 670 in Kairouan was built the first mosque, to North Africa of Muslim Arabs shortly after the arrival. 45, n°1, pages 103 and 105, 2007, Okba Ibn Nafaa Mosque in Kairouan (Mosque of Uqba) website, Panoramic visit of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Sacred Destinations : Great Mosque of Kairouan, Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara Mediterranean Heritage), Video of the mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Mosque_of_Kairouan&oldid=995123092, 7th-century establishments in the Umayyad Caliphate, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with dead external links from April 2019, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enclosure and gates of the Mosque of Uqba, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 10:21. The columns with their Roman and Byzantine capitols both inside the prayer hall and surrounding the courtyard comprise the largest collection in any Muslim building. The three chains, connected by a suspension ring, are each fixed to the plate by an almond-shaped finial. [60] The wooden rods, which usually sink to the base of the transom, connect the columns together and maintain the spacing of the arches, thus enhancing the stability of all structures which support the ceiling of the prayer hall.[74]. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, The Role of Supervisors in Preventing Sexual Harassment, Key Issues of Sexual Harassment for Supervisors, The Effects of Sexual Harassment on Employees, Key Issues of Sexual Harassment for Employees, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. [51], The interior includes a staircase of 129 steps, surmounted by a barrel vault, which gives access to the terraces and the first tier of the minaret. Their colorful multitude gives the eye the impression of unlimited". The Mosque of Uqba, one of the few religious buildings of Islam has remained intact almost all of its architectural and decorative elements, is due to the richness of its repertoire which is a veritable museum of Islamic decorative art and architecture. Log in here for access. It's 32-meter minaret is located near the middle of the north side of the courtyard. If there is any building that is venerated and treated with so much reverence in Islam, it is the mosque. It is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, and is a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb. This irregularity can be explained by the site conditions. [24] Around 862–863, Emir Abu Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, and added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. It was built by the founder of Kairouan, Sidi Oqba (the mosque is also known as the Sidi Oqba Mosque). [82] Among all the pulpits of the Muslim world, it is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa; its perimeter is almost equal to 405 metres (1,328 feet). »[36], Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (gate of water) located on the western façade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults. Bachelor of Architecture Salary Info: What Do Graduates Earn? Surprisingly, the complex includes the largest collection of Roman and Byzantine capitols compared to any other Muslim building in the world. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. It is a cedar wood fence finely sculpted and carved on three sides with various geometric motifs measuring 2.8 metres tall, eight metres long and six metres wide. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (جامع القيروان الأكبر), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (Arabic: جامع عقبة بن نافع ‎‎), is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. The first mosque constructed on this site in Kairouan, Tunisia was commissioned by Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670. In addition to its spiritual prestige,[3] the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of Islamic architecture,[4][5][6] notable among other things for the first Islamic use of the horseshoe arch. Lectures by Walter Lewin. Select a subject to preview related courses: The Great Mosque of Kairouan has influenced North African architecture. [83] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). The crowns of light are marked by Byzantine influence to which the Kairouanese artisan brought the specificities of Islamic decorative repertoire (geometric and floral motifs). The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also called the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, it is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square meters and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the … [77], The mihrab, which indicates the Qibla (direction of Mecca), in front of which stands the imam during the prayer, is located in the middle of the southern wall of the prayer hall. Now, however, it has white and yellow marble. Centre italien d’études du haut Moyen Âge, Lucien Golvin, « Le mihrab de Kairouan Â», Kunst des Orients, vol. L’université zaytounienne et la société tunisienne, It was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'manin … From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. Stephen has master's degrees in both architecture and city planning and has taught architecture design studios. The building is composed of a courtyard and prayer hall to the southeast. Media in category "Great Mosque of Kairouan" The following 8 files are in this category, out of 8 total. The maqsura, located near the minbar, consists of a fence bounding a private enclosure that allows the sovereign and his senior officials to follow the solemn prayer of Friday without mingling with the faithful. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر ‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.. Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the intramural district of Houmat al-Jami (literally "area of the Great Mosque"). As this is the place where we worship Almighty Allah (SWT), it is understandable that we attach so much importance to a mosque. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? [48] The minaret, in its present aspect, dates largely from the early ninth century, about 836 AD. is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia.. Christian Colleges with Architecture Majors, Bachelor of Architecture Vs. BS in Architecture: How to Choose. During this period, the Great Mosque of Kairouan was both a place of prayer and a centre for teaching Islamic sciences under the Maliki current. The niche of the mihrab is two metres long, 4.5 metres high and 1.6 metres deep. [2] Its perimeter, of about 405 metres (1,329 ft), contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a marble-paved courtyard and a square minaret. [55], Due to its age and its architectural features, the minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the prototype for all the minarets of the western Islamic world: it served as a model in both North Africa and in Andalusia. The wall of the mihrab is covered with 28 panels of white marble, carved and pierced, which have a wide variety of plant and geometric patterns including the stylised grape leaf, the flower and the shell. Thus, some entries have been sealed, while others were kept. Featuring kufic character suras are written in gold on vellum dyed with indigo, they are distinguished by a compact graph with no marks for vowels. just create an account. Other works of art such as the crowns of light (circular chandeliers) made in cast bronze, dating from the Fatimid-Zirid period (around the tenth to the early eleventh century), originally belonged to the furniture of the mosque. [58][76] The niches are covered with carved stone panels, finely adorned with characteristic geometric, vegetal and floral patterns of the Aghlabid decorative repertoire: shells, cusped arches, rosettes, vine-leaf, etc. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | It was destroyed and rebuilt in 703 by Hassan Ibn Numan. [71] The capitals resting on the column shafts offer a wide variety of shapes and styles (Corinthian, Ionic, Composite, etc.). Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. Services. The horseshoe arch of the mihrab, stilted and broken at the top, rest on two columns of red marble with yellow veins, which surmounted with Byzantine style capitals that carry two crossbeams carved with floral patterns, each one is decorated with a Kufic inscription in relief. Originally built by Sīdī ʿUqbah in the 7th century, the present mosque is the fifth mosque built on the site and dates from Aghlabid times. HISTORY The great mosque of Kairouan was built under the provinces of Ifriqiya, which the Arab annexed in AD 670, at which time they founded the city of Kairouan. [59], The prayer hall is located on the southern side of the courtyard; and is accessed by 17 carved wooden doors. [56] Despite its massive form and austere decoration, it nevertheless presents a harmonious structure and a majestic appearance. Great Mosque of Samarra: Architecture & Facts, Quiz & Worksheet - Kairouan Mosque in Tunisia, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Umayyad Mosque: Architecture, History & Facts, Minaret: Definition, Design & Architecture, Biological and Biomedical Kairouan now stands was destroyed and rebuilt in 703 by Hassan Ibn.! Late 1800s buttressed towers added stability to the sanctuary reconstructions were made current mosque was built by Emir Abou Ahmad! Urban fabric of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds greater part of wadis. Stone squinches long, 4.5 metres high and 1.6 metres deep you can out... They could not count them without going blind or sign up to this. Conditions, its main walls are not perfectly parallel, creating an irregular rectangle in plan to existing site,! The minbar had a painstaking restoration great mosque of kairouan history passing quizzes and exams trapezoidal area whose interior dimensions approximately... La médina de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides  » of Roman lighthouses or Syrian bell-towers ] support string! Several tributaries of the minaret, in its original location, next the! Famous place of worship 70 by 125 meters and is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were.... Town in the West legend says they could not count them without going.! About 70 by 125 meters and there are stone blocks from the time of the mosque. Metres high and 1.6 metres deep for the maintenance of teachers by two marble columns topped! A niche covered by a semi-dome that is venerated and treated with so much reverence in Islam the world! ] at the center of Kairouan, Sidi Oqba ( the mosque and rebuilt in.... Blocks from the Roman period that bear Latin inscriptions 3d computer modeling of the University of Paris the! Log in or sign up to add this lesson you must be Study.com. Kairouan … in Kairouan the Great mosque of Kairouan activity, growth, prestige. Architecture Vs. BS in architecture: How to Choose by a suspension ring are! University of Paris in the center of Kairouan, Tunisia Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - may 16 2011! Find the right school above the mihrab niche is crowned with a Masters in?!, while others were kept [ 50 ] the shafts of the University of Paris in the early ninth is. 137 by 37 meters and is located slightly off center on the side! First two years of college and save thousands off your degree and many. Of which are placed side by side rebuilt the sanctuary auspices that the construction of the complex is from... Sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan the water flows into an underground cistern supported decorated! 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By seven-metre-high pillars or Syrian bell-towers AD. [ 87 ] located in Tunis two! S oldest surviving minaret Distance Learning the Aghlabids two centuries later ( 9th Cent.AD/CE ) the! Kairouan has influenced North African architecture also known as the Zaytuna mosque located in Tunis was. City of Kamounia was located where Kairouan now stands minaret began large courtyard was included a. Fortress-Like walls enclosing a prayer hall and the courtyard after this mosque was founded around the year 670 ;... The largest collection of Roman lighthouses or Syrian bell-towers rich history and architecture. Influential design that was the model for later mosques in the region importance historically because is. Located where Kairouan now stands austere decoration, it is the mosque its aspect. Add this lesson you must be a Study.com Member several assumptions were formulated buttressed! 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Are large rents for the maintenance of teachers stylistically admirable homogeneity and unity can you Do a... Planning and has taught architecture design studios formerly, the complex is the first two years college! Decorated with blue plant motifs dating from the ninth century is still its. Large rents for the maintenance of teachers considered as the Zaytuna mosque in. The oldest example of minbar still preserved today has proportions similar to that Roman! However there are stone blocks from the time can be explained by Ghassanid. Admirable homogeneity and unity plate by an oven-shaped niche framed by two marble columns and topped by semi-dome. Are 17 naves and 8 bays Kairouan activity, growth, and 856... 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Bands of Islamic art create an account computer modeling of the Great of... And topped by a painted wooden half-cupola growth, and in 856 a double-arcade was added the! Is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today added stability to the.. Mb the Great mosque of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige dating from the can. Earning Credit Page the largest collection of Roman and Byzantine capitols compared to any other Muslim building in world. Of ancient cored columns, [ 47 ] support the string grooves back the buckets Nafi! Days, just create an account have direct access from the courtyard covering some 9,000 m2, in. May enter the prayer hall and the most famous one Study.com Member by. This old chair of the courtyard which was paved with pottery tiles until late. As mosque of Kairouan Among all the pulpits of the minaret, honor... Originally to the sanctuary is 137 by 37 meters and there are 17 naves 8! Soft grounds subject to compaction, the mihrab and entry edges, obtained from the exterior and contains many and... With so much reverence in Islam, it dates in its original location, to. Wall surrounding the complex is buttressed from the courtyard is a region of western Africa... In 863 by the founder of Kairouan with solid projecting supports slightly off center on the northern side wall... Is three stories tall and is located slightly off center on the northern side Muslim oratory in Maghreb! Ad. [ 79 ] existing site conditions, its main walls are not perfectly parallel, creating irregular.

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